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Coronal mass ejections are the results of explosions from sun spots on the sun. They hurl millions of tonnes of protons out into space, and if earth is in the way, the magnetic field gets clobbered!
This was an unusual month for the sun, during the year prior to the supposed solar minimum. A sunspot – area 798/808, unleashed a series of huge X-class explosions during a very active week. In fact it was the most active period for many years.
During experiments monitoring the HF band, I recorded a few “HF fadeouts” which coincided with solar flares coming from this sunspot. The frequency being monitored was the BBC World Service on 17.640 MHz.
July 14 2005 2000-2100 utc
A suspected CME (coronal mass ejection) strikes the upper atmosphere, causing ionization similar to an aurora (the fuzzy traces). There is also a sporadic E opening in progress (the solid lines).
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