Neutron Monitor at Oulu, Finland

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Real-time Oulu NM count rate, updated every five minutes. Data for the last 24-hr is PRELIMINARY

The South Pole monitor and other monitors of the
Bartol Research Institute, Delaware, have been offline since Dec 31st 2017.

Instead, this is the neutron monitor at Oulu, Finland (link) provided by
University of Oulu Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory 

Link to: Oulu Ground Level Event (GLE) Database


The South Pole monitor is retained here in case it is restored in the near future.

Last 10 days

Last 6 months

What is a Neutron Monitor?

A neutron monitor is an instrument that measures the number of high-energy particles impacting Earth from space.

For historical reasons these particles, mostly protons and helium nuclei, are called “cosmic rays.” Because the intensity of cosmic rays hitting Earth is not uniform, it is important to place neutron monitors at multiple locations in order to form a complete picture of cosmic rays in space.

Bartol Research Institute operated (until the end of 2017) eight neutron monitors. None appear to be online now. This page now displays live data from Oulu, Finland.

Cosmic ray rates are affected by solar wind strength and density, and therefore CMEs can have a major effect when they “sweep away” some of the neutrons within the area of the earth’s magnetic field. The first image below shows the effect of a CME impacting earth on 2017-07-16 following an M1.4 (semi) earth-directed solar flare. This is called a “Forbush Decrease”. Cosmic ray bursts are caused by supernovae and other galactic events.

The second image shows a Forbush decrease following an X9 flare and earth-directed CME on 2017-09-07. It also shows a minor “Ground Level Event” where protons have reached ground level following a large X8.3 flare (from the same sunspot group). These events can cause an increase in radiation dose particularly for high altitude flyers especially flying over polar routes.

For further very detailed background information see here.

An M1.4 flare followed by a CME caused this dip in the cosmic ray induced neutron count at the South Pole on 16 July 2017


Forbush decrease followed by minor Ground Level Event


Disclaimer for live data

Should not be used for scientific research purposes.
Use of these data for any purpose is “at your own risk.”

The G7IZU Radio Reflection Detection page. A blog featuring articles about space weather, aurora, and things related to the ionosphere